Some definitions in IT

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Some definitions in IT

Post  Radwa Abdelhalim on Wed Dec 22, 2010 8:09 am

Some definitions in IT


Computer:
A computer is an electronic device that processes data at high speed, with precision, and in accordance with a provided set of instructions. This set of instructions is referred to as a computer program


Microcomputer:
Microcomputers or personal computers (PCs) are small-sized and single-user. They include desktop PCs, portable PCs, and thin clients


Minicomputer:
Minicomputers or midrange servers are medium-sized and multi-user computers.
They are used to serve multiple users by hosting programs and data for a small computer network.


Mainframe:
Mainframes are large-sized and multi-user for large organizations that need to manage large amount of centralized data. They are usually located in a climate-controlled room serving hundreds or even thousands of users connected using their PCs or dumb terminals. They are larger, more powerful, and more expensive than minicomputers


Supercomputer:
Supercomputers are the largest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computers. They are used for complex scientific research and extraordinary applications as controlling satellites and missile systems.


Hardware components:
Hardware or computer's physical components include: Central processing unit (CPU) , Memory (primary storage device),Input devices as keyboards and mice,Output devices as monitors and printers, Secondary storage devices as hard-disk drives and CD drives.


Software:
Software is the computer programs and is divided into application software and system software.


System Software:
system software that provides an environment suitable for developing and executing application software


Utility Program:
A utility program is system software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing or maintaining the computer system. Some utility programs are stand-alone and some are built into operating systems.


Programming Language Translators:
Programming languages could be one of two categories: Compiled or Interpreted.


Operating System:
The Operating System is the most important program that runs on a computer.
Examples of operating systems are:


Windows XP 
Windows XP replaced both Windows 2000 for business use and Windows ME for home use. It is based on Windows NT an more stable and powerful than earlier versions of Windows built on the Windows 9x kernel. Windows XP is available in the five different versions. These are Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, and Windows XP Media Center Edition. All of the versions except Windows XP Media Center Edition use a similar interface.


Windows Vista
Windows Vista was previously code-named Longhorn. It reveals a new graphical interface that has the core functionality of the Windows XP interface but a slightly different appearance. Windows Vista directly supports DVD burning. It is more secure, and easier to manage and update. It supports advanced document tech­nologies as XML or extensible markup language. Both personal and server versions of Windows Vista are available.


UNIX
UNIX was originally developed in the late 1960s at AT&T Bell Laboratories as an operat­ing system for midrange servers. UNIX is a multiuser, multitasking operating system. Computer systems ranging from microcomputers to mainframes can run UNIX, and it can support a variety of devices from different manufacturers. This flexibility gives UNIX an advantage over competing operating systems for many types of applications. However, UNIX is more expensive, requires a higher level of PC knowledge, and tends to be harder to install, maintain, and upgrade than most other commonly used operating systems.


Linux
Linux is a flavor of UNIX originally developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991 when he was a student at the University of Helsinki in Finland. The operating system was released to the public as open-source software; that is, a program whose source code is available to the public and can be modified to improve it or to customize it to a particular applica­tion.


Application Software:
application software that solves problems for the computer user


Entertainment Software:
Examples of entertainment software are games and multimedia players.


Educational Software:
examples of educational software are foreign language and skill teaching software,A special type of educational software is reference software that includes encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and any other program developed to provide valuable information.


Productivity Software:
Productivity software aims at increasing productivity and work quality for individuals and businesses.Examples include word processing software.


Data modeling
Data modeling is a tool to illustrate the data in a program and is often used with object-oriented programming. In a data model, each object in the program is identified along with its corresponding class, class properties, and variables


Database :
A database is a collection of related data that is stored on a computer and organized in a manner enabling information to be retrieved as needed.


Database Management System:
A database management system (DBMS) is the type of application program used to create, maintain, and organize data in a database, as well as to retrieve information from it.


Distributed database system:
With a distributed database system, the data is divided among several computers connected via a network. the data is logically set up as belonging to a single database and appears that way to the user


n-tier database system:
n-tier database system, in which there is at least one middle piece of software-referred to as middleware-between the client and the server, instead of just having two components as in the typical two-tier client-server database system.


Arithmetic and Logic Unit ( ALU )
The ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations on data. Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Logical operations involve data comparisons so as to determine whether certain conditions are true or false.


ActiveX:
ActiveX, developed by Microsoft Corporation but compatible with most browsers today, is a set of controls that can be used to create interactive Web pages.


Radwa Abdelhalim

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Re: Some definitions in IT

Post  Rasha Badran on Tue Jan 04, 2011 8:08 pm

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شكرا

Post  Hala Elshal on Fri Jan 07, 2011 4:39 pm

جزاك الله خيرا Very Happy
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Re: Some definitions in IT

Post  ghada on Mon Jan 10, 2011 1:24 pm


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